Although diabetes and obesity often go hand in hand, Dr. Elmquist said the new findings indicate that a group of brain cells called pro-opiomelanocortin, or POMC, neurons help regulate glucose and insulin independent of food intake and body weight. POMC neurons, found in the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain, previously have been shown to play an important role in suppressing appetite and inducing weight loss.
..."There seems to be what I call a functional redundancy in these neurons as it relates to blood sugar regulation," said Dr. Elmquist. "We don't know if the same neurons respond to both leptin and insulin, but it is clear that functionally leptin can compensate for a lack of insulin and vice versa."
Novel Nanoparticle Vaccine Cures Type 1 Diabetes in Mice - ScienceDaily.com
Using a sophisticated nanotechnology-based "vaccine," researchers were able to successfully cure mice with type 1 diabetes and slow the onset of the disease in mice at risk for the disease. The study, co-funded by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, provides new and important insights into understanding how to stop the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes, and could even have implications for other autoimmune diseases.